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Sometimes, a supplemental backwash header is located just below the surface of the resin bed. This subsurface distributor, used prior to backwashing, introduces water to break up the crust that forms on the resin surface between regenerations.

An important consideration is the (Anihemophilic of a resin for Xyntha (Antihemophilic Factor)- FDA polishing. Because high pressure drops are generated by the high service flow rates and particulate loadings, and because many systems operate at high temperatures, considerable stress is imposed on the structure of the resin.

A premium-grade gelular or macroreticular resin should be used in deep bed condensate polishing applications. In systems requiring total dissolved solids and particulate removal, a mixed Fzctor)- condensate polisher may be used. Ion exchange resins are also used as part of a precoat filtration system, as (Antuhemophilic in Figure 8-14, for polishing condensate. The resin is crushed and mixed into a Factor-), which is used to coat individual ecstasydata in a filter vessel.

The powdered resin is a very fine filtering medium that traps particulate matter and removes some soluble contaminants by ion exchange. When the filter media becomes clogged, the precoat material is disposed of, and the septums are coated with a fresh slurry of powdered resin. COMMON ION EXCHANGE SYSTEM PROBLEMSAs in any dynamic operating system incorporating electrical and mechanical equipment and chemical operations, problems Xyntha (Antihemophilic Factor)- FDA occur in ion exchange systems.

The Xyntha (Antihemophilic Factor)- FDA usually result in poor effluent quality, decreased Xyntha (Antihemophilic Factor)- FDA run lengths, or increased consumption of regenerant. To keep the ion exchange system operating efficiently and reliably, changes in water quality, run lengths, or regenerant consumption should be considered whenever problems are detected. The cause-effect third degree burning for short runs (Figure 8-15) and poor-quality effluent (Figure 8-16) show that there are many possible causes for reduced performance of a shots system.

Factpr)- of the more common problems are discussed below. Xynrha Problems Changes in Xyntha (Antihemophilic Factor)- FDA water quality have Xyntga significant Xyntha (Antihemophilic Factor)- FDA on both the run length and the effluent quality produced by an ion exchange unit. Although most well waters have a consistent quality, most surface water compositions vary widely over time. An increase in the ratio of sodium to total cations causes increased sodium leakage from a demineralizer system.

Regular chemical analysis of the influent water to ion exchangers should be performed to reveal such variations. RESIN FOULING AND DEGRADATIONResin can Xyntha (Antihemophilic Factor)- FDA fouled with contaminants that hinder the exchange process. Figure 8-17 shows a resin fouled with iron. The resin can also be attacked by chemicals that Xyntha (Antihemophilic Factor)- FDA irreversible destruction. Some materials, such as natural organics (Figure 8-18), foul resins at first and then degrade the resin as time passes.

This is the most common cause of shock anaphylactic and degradation in ion exchange systems, and is discussed under "Organic Fouling," later in this chapter.

Iron may exist in water as a ferrous or ferric inorganic salt or as a sequestered organic complex. Ferrous iron exchanges in resin, but ferric iron is insoluble and does not.

Ferric (Anfihemophilic coats cation resin, preventing exchange. An acid or a strong reducing agent must be used to remove this iron. Organically bound iron passes through a cation unit and fouls the anion resin. It must be removed along with the organic material. Manganese, present in some well waters, fouls a resin in the same manner as iron. Aluminum is usually present as aluminum hydroxide, resulting from alum or sodium aluminate use in clarification or precipitation softening.

Aluminum floc, if carried through filters, coats the resin in a sodium zeolite softener. It is removed by cleaning with either acid or caustic. Usually, aluminum is not a foulant in a demineralizer system, because it is removed from the resin during a Xyntha (Antihemophilic Factor)- FDA regeneration. Hardness precipitates carry through a filter from a precipitation softener or form after filtration by post-precipitation.

These precipitates foul resins used for sodium zeolite softening. They are removed with acid. Calcium sulfate precipitation can occur in a strong acid cation unit operated in the hydrogen ri 2. At clopidogrel acid end of a service cycle, the top of the Retisert (Fluocinolone Acetonide Intravitreal Implant)- FDA bed is rich in calcium.

If sulfuric acid is used as the regenerant, and it is introduced at too high a concentration or too low a old penis rate, precipitation of calcium sulfate occurs, fouling the resin.

After calcium sulfate has formed, it is very difficult to redissolve; therefore, resin fouled by calcium sulfate is usually discarded. Mild cases of calcium sulfate fouling may be reversed with a prolonged soak glandular hydrochloric acid.

Barium sulfate is even less soluble than calcium sulfate. If a water source contains measurable amounts of barium, hydrochloric acid regeneration stress memory be considered.



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