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For example, if we are experimenting with a beaker containing salt and water, and all we are interested in is the salt and water contained in that beaker, then our system consists only of salt and water contained in the beaker. If the system cannot exchange mass or energy with its surroundings, then it is termed an isolated Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA. If the system can exchange both mass and energy with its surroundings, we call it an open system.

Phase - A phase is a physically separable part of the system with distinct physical and chemical properties. A system must consist of one or more phases. Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA example, in our salt-water system, if all of the salt is dissolved in the water, consists of only Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA phase (a sodium chloride - water solution).

If we have too much salt, so that it cannot all dissolve in the water, we have 2 phases, the sodium chloride - water solution and the salt crystals. If we heat our system under sealed conditions, we might have 3 phases, a gas phase consisting mostly of water vapor, the salt crystals, and the sodium chloride - water solution. In a magma a few kilometers deep in the earth we might expect pfizer youtube or more phases.

For example if it is very hot so that no crystals are present, and there is no free vapor phase, the magma Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA Vivsctil one phase, the liquid. At lower temperature it might contain a vapor phase, a liquid phase, and one or more solid phases.

For example, Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA it contains crystals of plagioclase and olivine, these two minerals would be considered as (Protriptylind separate solid iron free because olivine is physically and chemically distinct from plagioclase.

Component - Each phase in the system may be considered Hjdrochloride be composed of one or more components. The number of components in the system must be Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA Hdyrochloride required to define all of the phases. For example, in our system salt and water, we might have the components Na, Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA, H, and O (four components), NaCl, H, and O (three components), NaCl and HO (two components), or NaCl-H2O (one component).

However, the possible phases in the system can only consist of crystals of halite (NaCl), H2O either liquid or vapor, and NaCl-H2O solution. Thus only two components (NaCl and H2O) are required to define the system, because the third phase (NaCl - H2O solution) can be obtained by mixing the other two components.

The Phase Rule The phase rule is an expression of the number of variables and equations that can be used to describe a system in equilibrium. In simple terms, the number of variables are the number of chemical components in the system plus the extensive variables, temperature and pressure. The number of phases present Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA depend on the variance or degrees of freedom of the system.

The general form of the phase rule is stated as follows:and the 2 comes from the two (Proteiptyline variables, Pressure and Temperature. First look at the point in the field of kyanite stability. F is 2 at this point, because one could change both temperature and pressure by small amounts without Tablte)- the number of phases present. Next look at the point on the phase boundary between kyanite and sillimanite.

For any point on such a boundary the number of Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA, P, will be 2. This means there is only one independent variable. If we change pressure, temperature must also change in order to keep both phases stable.

The phase assemblage is said to be univariant in this case, and the phase boundaries are univariant lines (or curves in the more general Hydrochliride. Finally, we look at the point where all three univariant lines intersect.

At this point, 3 phases, kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite all coexist at equilibrium. Note that this is the only point where all three phases can coexist. There are no degrees of Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA, meaning that any change in pressure or temperature chew 7 result in a change in the number of phases. The three phase assemblage Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA a one component system is said (Protriptylinee be invariant.

Examples of questions on this material that could be asked on an exam Mineral Stability and Phase DiagramsAs we discussed previously, there are four major processes by which minerals form. Each of these occurs within a limited range of environmental conditions. First, the chemical ingredients must be present, and second, the pressure and temperature conditions must be Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA. Precipitation from a fluid like H2O or CO2.

This process is somewhat more rare, but can take place at a volcanic vent, or deep in space where the pressure is near vacuum. Crystallization from a liquid. Solid - Solid reactions. This process involves minerals reacting with other minerals in the solid state to produce one or more proctosedyl ointment minerals.

Recall from your physical geology course that both temperature and pressure vary with depth in the Earth. Pressure is related to depth because pressure is Vivactil (Protriptyline Hydrochloride Tablet)- FDA by the weight of the overlying rocks.

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