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Instead, we adopted a more tractable approach, assessing simply the physical capacity of the site to mitigate flood risk by calculating the sum of above- and below-ground water storage provided by the site in its current state. Above-ground storage at the site was calculated for each major compartment as the volume between the mean water table and the bank top using a digital elevation model (1 m Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA resolution, 0.

The volume of soil above the water table in each compartment was also calculated and then multiplied by the drainable porosity of the soil (taken as 0. The mean volume of water stored per unit area for all compartments was multiplied by the area of Fen Drayton to estimate the total water storage capacity in its current state. For the alternative scenarios, mean volumes of water stored per unit area were calculated for the intervention hotels bayer non-intervention compartments and then scaled Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA the entire site.

One-off restoration and annual management costs were calculated for the different states at each site based on current industry figures for restoration costs per unit area of habitat (N. Farm expenditures included manual labour, interest and rental costs, and also an additional value for unpaid labour (predominantly that of the farmer and spouse) which, although often excluded from reported values, constitutes a genuine cost to agricultural production.

Note that these values are presented to place the restoration strategies in a management context, and are not intended to represent a full cost-benefit analysis. Fishing Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA absent under the intervention scenario. The following section examines these topics in turn and subsequently contextualises the results of the study by comparing ecosystem services provision and considering restoration and ongoing site management costs across different management scenarios.

Our results demonstrate that the nature conservation management onivyde employed at Ouse Fen provides more than double the mean C storage than would occur under an alternative agricultural land use. The value of this stored C can be considerable, depending on the choice of published C price used, with higher values arising from C prices incorporating social costs and lower values from those reflecting market-based values.

Higher C prices may lead to C storage and sequestration becoming a dominant feature in ecosystem service valuations, with the potential for tradeoffs to arise between maximising monetary values and maintaining social equity. With respect to ongoing C fluxes, the nature conservation strategy at Ouse Fen is associated with some CO2 sequestration from the atmosphere, yet the concurrent emission of CH4 with high GWP100 from livestock and reedbeds suggests the site is currently a net emitter of GHGs.

Similarly, the agricultural scenario at Ouse Fen is also a net emitter of GHGs, primarily caused by high N2O emissions associated with the za 18 of fertilisers. Given the relatively wide range of published emission factors employed in this study, our estimates suggest the GWP100 of Ouse Fen is comparable under both nature conservation and agricultural management scenarios.

The value of crop production under the agriculture scenario was higher than that of any other service for which monetary values were assigned, but annual management costs associated with this scenario were also higher than those Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA with the nature conservation restoration state. Furthermore, increased supply of this provisioning ecosystem service was linked to a trade-off in other regulating and cultural services considered in this study (Fig.

Provision of some services are habitat area-based, and the provision of one may preclude another (e. Given that Ouse Fen has only recently been restored, and does not yet have the level of access that might normally be present in a UK nature reserve, it is possible that Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA visitors use existing historical footpaths for recreation and would still do so if the site had not been restored to a nature reserve.

GHG flux values are based on UK Government central scenario figures. Note that flood risk mitigation values are absent Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA these are not expressed as monetary values. See text for abbreviations. Our Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA indicate Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA ecosystem service delivery at Fen Drayton is influenced to some extent by species-focused interventions, but Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA this relationship varies on a service-specific basis across the site.

Intervention management areas at Fen Drayton, which are focused on targeted restoration and management actions to support target species of conservation concern, are important providers of carbon storage and livestock grazing, reflecting nature conservation activities that are designed to foster the creation of priority habitat areas.

Here, management is centred on encouraging the growth of reedbeds with high volumes of organic matter. In terms of both restoration and ongoing management costs, such activities are relatively expensive in comparison to the non-intervention scenario. Our results indicate that at present Fen Drayton has a climate cooling negative GWP100, and would do so under the intervention scenario. Intervention areas are important for the provision of grazing where cattle are used to manage the height of grassland swards, yet livestock also contribute to CH4 emissions from the site.

Moreover, the current state of the site delivers greater grazing services than it would under either of the two hypothetical scenarios (as it more contains more area under grassland). Our results indicate that the provision of other ecosystem services, specifically carbon sequestration, fishing and flood risk mitigation, is higher in non-intervention areas at Fen Drayton (Fig.

This is due predominantly to the historical lack of site re-profiling following gravel extraction, which has resulted in the continued presence of steep-banked compartments with large areas of open water in the older areas of the Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA. Additionally, these steep-banked compartments have greater water storage capacity than those with more gentle profiles, and so have increased potential to contribute to reducing the risk of flooding to downstream communities.

Given a median annual flood discharge for the Great Ouse river of 85. The recreational value of this area of the site was also higher in the non-intervention area than the intervention area and the site in its current state.

This study provided a rapid site-scale assessment of ecosystem services and so has limitations compared to a more comprehensive appraisal.

For example, there are other ecosystem services Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA by the study sites that were not assessed here because of technical difficulties (e. Our estimates of recreational and fishing value focus solely on the more tractable elements of direct expenditure incurred by on-site visitors and do not consider consumer surplus (i.

However, despite these limitations we suggest our results provide useful indications, based on well-established methods, Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA the capacity of each site to provide benefits to society. Finally, the approach employed by this study is aimed to be accessible to all stakeholders, and its participatory nature means it can be used to explore the wider consequences of nature conservation and promote discussion between different ecosystem service beneficiaries.

Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton illustrate some of Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA different restoration strategies that are possible at post-mineral extraction sites, and the neut of ecosystem services associated with them. Acne results show that Ouse Fen as a nature Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA provides more recreational benefits than it would as agricultural land, while at Fen Drayton, the recreation benefits of the site are highest in its current state where different areas of the site have been subject to different levels of intervention, suggesting that a heterogeneous site appeals to more users.

Greenhouse gas fluxes and carbon stocks are largely determined by the habitats and their management provided under the various scenarios at both sites. Nature reserve and intervention management provide greater carbon stocks, but none of the options provide especially high levels of sequestration, Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA both agricultural activities and wetlands are net GHG-emitters.

At both sites, the benefits associated with agriculture and grazing are provided in proportion to how compatible these activities are with the restoration scenario. The implications of changes in ecosystem service provision associated with different restoration strategies should be considered in the context of the beneficiaries, who are largely local (with the exception of Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA global beneficiaries of climate change mitigation).

Under the agricultural scenario at Ouse Fen, local recreational benefits are reduced, and financial benefits of agricultural production are more concentrated (although the anxiolytic drugs of food to the wider public is also a consideration).

At Fen Drayton, ecosystem service benefits are provided to people who may not visit the site, but who benefit from somewhat increased flood protection, dial the different restoration scenarios are likely to appeal to different site visitors. For conservation managers and restoration advisors, our results highlight the wider socio-economic benefits Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA by these restored mineral sites and the dynamics Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA occur between multiple ecosystem services under different types of restoration and management regime.

Because differences in service provision under different restoration scenarios have most impact on local beneficiaries, future site restoration schemes may benefit from adopting a localised (as well as site-specific) planning approach. Nonetheless, we suggest decisions regarding mineral site restoration should not necessarily be based only on utilitarian grounds (cf. For example, the potential marginal benefits to consumers of crop production from Ouse Fen represent only 0.

Therefore, while improved recognition of ecosystem service delivery may help to inform the restoration of mineral extraction sites, this Synojoynt (1% Sodium Hyaluronate Solution)- FDA must be considered by decision-makers alongside legislative requirements, non-use values and more traditional conservation arguments to develop future restoration schemes that benefit both biodiversity and people. We also thank three anonymous reviewers for constructive comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.

Conceived and designed the experiments: LJ KSHP AB RBB. Performed the experiments: LJ KSHP RHF RBB. Analyzed the data: PJB LJ RHF. Wrote the paper: PJB LJ KSHP RHF AB MAM RBB. Is the Subject Area "Fens" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Ecosystems" applicable to this article.

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Comments:

03.06.2019 in 11:48 nersdersbirdgi:
вот это ты точно подметил

08.06.2019 in 18:18 hedemi:
Вы попали в самую точку. В этом что-то есть и мне кажется это очень хорошая идея. Полностью с Вами соглашусь.