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A third exception is when information cannot Theophylline 5% Dextrose Injection Viaflex (Theophylline Anhydrous Injection Viaflex)- FDA given before the research is initiated, for example if a researcher cannot disclose the real purpose of an experiment. It is often possible to give participants general information on the project in advance, and detailed information afterwards, Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA about the project and about why they were not fully informed beforehand.

When a research project deals with personal data, researchers are obliged to inform the participants or subjects of research and to obtain their consent. The consent must be freely given, informed, and in an explicit form.

The obligation to obtain consent is set out in the Personal Data Act, and all processing of personal data in research must be reported to a data protection officer. When researchers process sensitive personal data, either a license is required from the Data Protection Johnson 2000 or a recommendation from a data protection officer (see the Introduction).

The obligation to obtain consent will prevent violations of personal integrity, and safeguard the freedom and self-determination of the participants. The consent must be based on information about the purpose of the project, the methods, risks, possible discomfort, and other consequences of importance to the participants.

Consent also makes it possible to conduct research that involves a certain risk of strain. Freely given consent means that the consent has been obtained without external pressure or constraints on individual freedom. Such pressure Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA arise from the presence of the researcher, or it can be mediated through persons in authority with whom the researcher has been in contact.

The fact that consent is informed means that a researcher has provided adequate information about what it means to take part in a research project.

The need for clear information is particularly great when the research involves a risk of strain (see point 7). That the consent is given in an explicit form means that group sanofi aventis participants clearly state that they understand what it actually means to take part in the research project. They must have real opportunities to refrain from taking part without this presenting an disadvantage, and they must be fully aware that they can end their participation at pains and aches time without this having any negative consequences.

Researchers must ensure that the participants have actually understood this information. This responsibility does not end even if an agreement has been signed, requiring researchers to be alert at all times. Usually, there should be a signed consent form, but sometimes other types of documentation may be more suitable. Freely given and informed consent is difficult to obtain in some types of research.

In such cases, researchers have a special responsibility for protecting the integrity of the individuals. This may apply, for example, to research involving individuals that either have an impaired or absent capacity to give a free and informed consent. The question of impaired or absent capacity to consent is usually raised anatomy connection with research involving children, the mentally ill, persons with intellectual disabilities, persons suffering from dementia and intoxicated individuals.

In some cases, it may be a matter of research where the knowledge may benefit the group in question, but where any direct benefit to the individuals included is absent, uncertain or in the remote future.

A prerequisite for including individuals who cannot give a free and informed consent is that any risk and strain associated with the study are negligible for the individuals included. Although a free and informed Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA is the general rule, exceptions can be made in situations in which the research does not imply direct contact with the participants, where the data being processed is not particularly sensitive, and where the utility value of the research clearly Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA any disadvantages for the individuals involved.

One example is the use Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA existing Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA data, where Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA is not feasible to obtain consent from all of the persons covered by the registers.

In such cases, researchers have a special responsibility to explain in detail the potential beneficial value of the Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA, and for informing the parties involved and the general public about the purpose and results of the Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA, for example through the internet or other media like newspapers, radio and television (see also point 10). Generally, researchers must process data acquired about personal matters confidentially.

Personal data must normally be de-identified, while publication and dissemination of the research material must normally be anonymised. In certain situations, researchers must nonetheless balance confidentiality and the obligation to notify. When researchers promise confidentiality to participants, Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA pledge implies that the information will not Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA passed on in ways that can identify the individuals.

At the same time, the requirement of confidentiality has a legal aspect associated with protection of personal integrity and privacy, and both the Public Administration Act and surgical dressing Personal Data Act set limits on the type of confidentiality researchers can promise participants.

Researchers must therefore communicate clearly the Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA of the pledge of confidentiality. Sometimes a conflict can arise between the duty of confidentiality and the obligation to notify. The research may reveal censurable or illegal situations that can expose researchers to conflicting loyalties, particularly with a view to the promise of confidentiality. This also applies to processing of data that is subject to protection of sources.

This includes suspicion of espionage, acts of terrorism, murder, rape, incest or domestic violence. This applies to everyone, notwithstanding the duty of confidentiality. Generally, re-use of identifiable personal data requires the consent of the participants.

This does not apply to anonymised data, acquired for example for use in statistics, where the researcher cannot link persons and data. Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA the data have been anonymised, the researcher does Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA know which person the data and Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA material come from. However, anonymity must not be confused with de-identified data, where personal data are removed, so that no unauthorised persons are able to establish who the research subjects are, but where the researcher is able to link individuals and data.

Re-use of such de-identified data requires consent if researchers supplement registry studies with data obtained through active contact with the participants. When re-using and linking this type of data set, for example in registry studies that are large-scale, of a Sevoflurane Injection (Sojourn)- FDA duration, or which use geodata, it may also be possible to locate or identify individuals indirectly.

In such cases, researchers should make renewed attempts to obtain consent, even though this is difficult in practice.

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Comments:

21.02.2019 in 15:44 Полина:
Я извиняюсь, но, по-моему, Вы допускаете ошибку. Давайте обсудим. Пишите мне в PM.

26.02.2019 in 18:20 Лукерья:
Здравстуйте, зашла на ваш проект с Яндекса и Касперский начал ругаться на вирусы =(

28.02.2019 in 19:33 Анфиса:
Не могу сейчас поучаствовать в обсуждении - очень занят. Освобожусь - обязательно выскажу своё мнение.