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Most of HPGe detectors use high-density and high atomic numbered lead as a shield to reduce background noise due to radiation and radioactive dirt existing around the detectors. HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers are used widely for the measurement of environment radiations (Murray et al. The Low-level background gamma-ray spectrometer uses two kinds of shielding method to reduce background signals. One is a passive shielding to reduce background from natural radiation.

The other is an active shielding to reduce background due to the cosmic-ray muon with high Nifedipine Extended Release Tablets (Procardia XL)- Multum power. The passive shielding surround the HPGe detector in a form of cabinet and from the outermost, it consists of 120 mm of paraffin, 100 mm of standard lead, 2 mm of tin, 50 mm of low-activity lead, and 10 mm of copper. The active shielding is called a cosmic-ray muon veto detector and comprises three plastic scintillator detectors.

Since secondary cosmic rays reach the surface in a downward direction from the Nifedipine Extended Release Tablets (Procardia XL)- Multum atmosphere, the active shielding is placed uppermost part of the passive shielding (Lee et al. The low-level background gamma-ray spectrometer used in presidential experiment is operated by anti-coincidence mode with HPGe detectors.

The Anti-coincidence electronic circuit system is a econazole nitrate cream to remove signal coincidences, thus, it utilizes the time signals of an HPGe detector and a plastic scintillator.

The output signals in the plastic scintillator are amplified through a photomultiplier tube and the 3 signals generated are added through a summing amplifier elliot johnson produce a single signal. The single output signal is amplified using a fast filter amplifier to have a faster rise time and a narrower bandwidth than the original signal.

In this process, a constant-fraction differential discriminator filters specific ranges of signal magnitude. Also, the HPGe detector utilizes a fast filter amplifier and a differential discriminator to amplify and filter signals. A Time to Amplitude Converter measures interval between start Valrubicin (Valstar)- Multum stop signals.

While the start signals are received from the timing chain of plastic scintillator detector, the stop signals are received from the timing chain of HPGe detector through a delay generator. MCA converts the calibrated output signals into digital signals using an AD converter and identifies and collects signal counts according to the pulse height and finally stores them.

While radiations Nifedipine Extended Release Tablets (Procardia XL)- Multum from the measurement samples are processed only through the HPGe detector to generate output pulses, high penetrating cosmic rays are processed sequentially through the plastic scintillator detector and the HPGe detector to generate output pulses respectively. During this process, the anticoincidence circuit removes the signals responding to both plastic and HPGe detectors and reduces background signals (Quittner 1972, Nuttall 1980).

In the energy range of 50-3000 keV, background counting rates were 1. Thus, when active shielding is used, cosmic ray background is removed with the rate of 1. The shaded peak is a result of the cosmic-ray. Each of the samples was measured on the basis of live time in seconds. The background and the soil samples were measured 100,000 seconds per one data set.

The elapsed live time for the reference material samples (KCl, RGU and RGTh) are 1000 seconds, respectively. The background and the soil samples were measured three times in rapid succession, which made it possible to detect a flaw in the data. Generally, gamma-ray spectroscopy utilizes popular Window Analysis (WA) method and Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) Method.

The two methods show significant difference in that while the WA method considers the interested peaks of biphasic spectrum, FSA method takes into account of bachelor psychology the peaks of whole spectrum and additional Compton scattering of gamma-rays (Maphoto 2004).

Dominant peaks of a soil sample and a pure water sample are seen in Fig. There are two kinds of spectra: one is to express dominant peaks by Region Of Interest (ROI) better, and the other is Nifedipine Extended Release Tablets (Procardia XL)- Multum show Compton scattering events more clearly.

Typical Nifedipine Extended Release Tablets (Procardia XL)- Multum decision support system method to measure the activity concentration of samples is WA method. In this method, the radioactivity is obtained using Equation (1). In WA method, first, the dominant peak by Region of Interest is designated in the spectrum of reference material sample and energy dependent nuclide efficiency corresponding to the peak is calculated.

Next, the radioactivity of measurement sample is calculated by finding the same ROI peak in the spectrum of measurement sample and applying the previously obtained energy dependent nuclide efficiency. In this method, only ROI peak is considered, Nifedipine Extended Release Tablets (Procardia XL)- Multum, it takes longer to measure to achieve statistical significance and also a relatively long time is required for the data analysis.

In this experiment, data processing is performed in the following sequence.

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Comments:

23.06.2019 in 13:54 Милена:
А это точная информация? Все действительно так? Если да то это круто)

25.06.2019 in 19:13 liogosaws:
Как всегда на высоте!