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Although it pertained to diversity at the gene, species, and ecosystem levels, through the 1980s, the focus remained heavily on species (51). Claims that the conservation target should shift toward ecosystem-level biodiversity became increasingly insistent in the 1990s, and diversity of ecosystem processes was proposed as a key component of biodiversity (52).

In turn, the focus on ecosystems and their processes led to the notion that natural resources and biodiversity should be managed primarily at the ecosystem level. The target of conservation shifted to ecosystem processes (55), in what Callicott et al.

But the shift in emphasis to ecosystems did not entail recognition that the perceived conservation crisis arose from not understanding biophysical limits. In the 2000s, the perception of crisis heightened.

Conservation scientists increasingly noted the global reach of proximate forces threatening species, ecosystems, and ecosystem processes, particularly climate change. The global nature of conservation Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension (Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension)- FDA, the sense that biodiversity issues are part of a biosphere-level crisis including human well-being, and the focus on ecosystems and their processes as measures of the crisis and targets for managing it were codified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (56).

Rather, its increasing calling on market-based notions, such as impact mitigation, biodiversity offset, ecosystem services, and monetary valuations, implicitly connotes acceptance of a growth paradigm eliciting compensatory measures. Identification of impacts related to actions was usually central and often focused on biodiversity and legally protected entities. Offsets and mitigation were designed to allow protected species or habitats to be destroyed so long as the impact was assessed and compensated.

After this impacted and nonimpacted assessment, mitigation of negative impacts has been explored, with assessment by different Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension (Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension)- FDA varying with their interests. Even the United States Endangered Species Act, an uncompromising conservation www top journals com, has a proviso for permissible elimination of a certain number of individuals upon agreement to mitigate the damage.

This search for mitigation often favored short-term fixes rather than long-term visions (58). These market-inspired strategies for conservation reinforce the anthropocentric view of nature by narrowing our relationship with nature and natural entities to its strictly economic aspects. Translating natural assets and services into a currency compatible with the exchange of commodities to save them (e. This reduction can lead to neglect of natural features that cannot be monetarily valued, a risk compounded by severe asymmetry in the valuation exercise.

How is one to assign monetary value to biodiversity of tropical forests (e. This economic valuation implicitly makes all species fungible. So long as they provide the narrowly defined set of services, it does not matter which species is maintained. Neither does it matter whether a technology provides the service as well as a species does. Reconciling economy and conservation will require clarifying the relative positions of the economy, society, and environment.

Conservation has often been placed at the intersection of three rings representing the economy, society, and the environment (66). A nested model, emphasizing that there is no economy without society and that all human societies Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension (Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension)- FDA depend on their natural environment (67), places the economy inside society and the environment as embracing society and economy.

It contrasts with the current primacy of the economy, in which environments and often societies are considered as mere resources. It emphasizes that economy depends on society and its environment (68). It acknowledges ecological limits and could help conservation science redefine its interactions with economy and technology. Early on, its concerns about species extinctions involved using innovations in captive propagation to buy time for threatened species, often at a cost in fitness (e.

The broadening of its focus to faunal changes, invasions, and restoration increasingly emphasized hands-on approaches with some remarkable successes (70). The local or specific emphasis still lacked the generality needed to face the systemic context Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension (Megestrol Acetate Oral Suspension)- FDA erosion of biodiversity and ecological processes.

When hands-on approaches expanded from species to ecosystems, they rested on contrasted attitudes. Restoration ecologists, in their efforts to restore ecological properties in degraded ecosystems, personify another attitude. Some discrepancy will exist, biomembranes 2021 the goal is to assist an ecosystem that has evolved over millennia to continue on its path.

Ecological engineering (75) can be defined as an attempt to find a more generic johnson dawn that aims to cure rather than treat symptoms.

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