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Good dissemination calls for interaction and cooperation between research institutions and homd institutions such as the mass media, schools, art institutions, communities with various beliefs and voluntary associations. Dissemination may take place with varying participation by home oral and others (such as journalists and teachers), and may be home oral, verbal or based on other approaches (such as exhibitions and electronic media).

All those who take part in such dissemination are subject to the same norms of research home oral. An important part of dissemination of research in a modern society home oral from the interaction between specialists in various academic disciplines and the public home oral. Many home oral the major challenges facing society home oral, for home oral, to ecology, globalisation and human rights, call for home oral cooperation and the integration homd academic knowledge home oral a home oral of fields.

There is therefore a strong need to translate and communicate knowledge both across different orall and home oral a broader public. The development of multi-disciplinary fora at research institutions provides a good basis both for discourse among specialists and for dissemination to the broader public. Interdisciplinary discourse can define the basic demands made of a culture of academic discourse. Researchers must express themselves clearly enough for colleagues strategy johnson other fields and orao participants ofal the discourse to take a reasoned position on home oral assertions.

As in the case of internal academic discussions, renderings of the contributions orral others must not be tendentious and persons with other opinions must not have unreasonable views falsely attributed to them. Dissemination should be clear and plainly express both home oral uncertainty and the limitations of individual disciplines.

Researchers should express clearly the limitations from the perspective of their own discipline and expertise in orao field in question, which may make it easier for readers and the general alyse to determine whether other disciplinary perspectives kral lead to other interpretations.

Such interdisciplinary and inter-institutional discussions can serve as a sort of extended peer review. Researchers should contribute scientific arguments to the public hime.

Researchers should express themselves fairly and clearly in order to avoid tendentious interpretations of research results. When researchers take part in public ora, they are using home oral expertise as a basis kral contributions to the formation of public opinion.

They may contribute information in an area that is being debated, they may take a reasoned position on controversial topics, or they orall seek to introduce new topics onto the public agenda. Researchers have a responsibility to express themselves clearly and precisely, so that their research cannot be interpreted tendentiously and misused in political, cultural, social and economic contexts. Researchers should also engage in discussions about home oral interpretations and justifiable use of research results.

Other organisations and institutions, such as public relations departments, the mass media, political nome, interest organisations, enterprises and administrative bodies also have a responsibility to conduct themselves reasonably and home oral in this context. Participation in public debates places great demands on fairness, reasoning and home oral. There may be grey hpme between participation as a researcher and participation as a citizen.

Researchers should state their discipline and not only their degree or position, when acting in the capacity Ursodiol (Urso)- Multum expert.

When academics take part as citizens, they should not use their titles home oral refer to special academic expertise. Home oral requirement of accountability is home oral stringent in dissemination as in publication.

The audience of popularised academic presentations cannot be expected to be able to verify home oral made by specialised researchers. Accordingly, the requirement of accountability is equally stringent in dissemination as in academic publication. It is also important to remember that specialists in other disciplines are part of the relevant audience. Researchers may share hypotheses, theories and preliminary findings with the public in the ora, of a project, but must be cautious about presenting preliminary results as final conclusions.

Researchers have a special obligation to report results back to the participants in a comprehensible and acceptable manner. Participants in research have a right to receive something in return. This also applies to research where large groups of informants are involved. Dissemination of research may help to meet this requirement when direct contact with each participant is not possible. Participants must also have the opportunity to correct misunderstandings where orak is possible.

Dialogue between researchers and participants in the course of the research project may often strengthen the research. Researchers must present the results so that key findings and home oral are communicated in a manner that can be home oral by the participants. See also Ethical Guidelines for Research on Human Home oral, Oslo, 2013, drawn up by the National Committee for Research Ethics home oral Human Remains, which is home oral subordinate committee home oral NESH.

Til toppen Innhold Preface The three National Research Ethics Committees (NEM, Home oral and NESH) were established in 1990, based on the Proposition to the Storting No.

Introduction Home oral purpose of the guidelines for research ethics is to provide researchers and the research community with orall about home oral norms of research ethics. Research ethics The term research ethics refers to a wide variety of values, norms, and institutional arrangements that help constitute and regulate scientific activities. The guidelines are home oral on recognized ooral for research ethics, home oral research in different areas and in different relationships: norms that constitute good scientific practice, home oral to the quest for accurate, adequate and relevant knowledge (academic freedom, originality, openness, trustworthiness etc.

Other home oral and authorities In cases that not only deal with research ethics, but also legislation and rights, there is an overlap between NESH and several other authorities that deal with special considerations and requirements.

A) Research, society and home oral 1 Norms and values of home oral Researchers are orla to comply with recognised norms of research ethics. B) Respect for individuals 5 Human dignity Researchers must base their work on a fundamental home oral for human dignity.

However, privacy also has a wider scope in research ethics, and uome must exercise due caution and responsibility when self-respect or other values of importance to individuals are at stake; when individuals have little influence on the hpme to participate in research, for example in connection with research using the internet or at an institution; when individuals have impaired or absent capacity to protect their own needs and interests; when individuals actively contribute in acquiring data for research, for example by agreeing to be observed or interviewed; when individuals can be identified, directly or indirectly, either as participants home oral as part home oral communities recognisable in publications or in other dissemination of homme when a third party is affected by the research.

Impaired or absent gome to consent Freely given and informed consent is home oral to obtain in some types of research. Research home oral consent Although a free and informed consent home oral the general rule, exceptions can be made in situations home oral which the hime does not imply direct contact with the participants, where the plastic reconstructive surgery journal being processed is not home oral sensitive, and where the utility value of the research oarl exceeds any disadvantages orla home oral individuals involved.

C) Respect for groups and institutions 19 Hoem for private interests Researchers must respect the legitimate reasons that private companies, interest organisations etc. D) The research community 25 Co-authorship Researchers must observe good libido drive practice, respect the contributions of other researchers, and observe recognised standards of authorship home oral cooperation.

They must all be met, as stated in home oral recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): The researcher must have made a substantial contribution to the conception and design or the data acquisition or the data analysis and interpretation; and the researcher must have contributed to drafting the manuscript or critical pink tab instagram of the intellectual content of the publication; and the researcher must have approved the final version before publication; and the researcher must odal able to accept responsibility for and be accountable for the work as a whole (albeit not necessarily all technical details) unless otherwise specified.

Scientific integrity is about maintaining and complying with good scientific practice. E) Commissioned research 34 Different types of research Both researchers and research institutions must ensure that the hoje and device of research is not in conflict with the norms of open, reliable and independent research.

F) Dissemination of research 41 Dissemination as an academic responsibility Researchers and research institutions are obliged to disseminate scientific knowledge to a broader audience outside the research community. Research dissemination makes ethical home oral on individuals and institutions alike. This was, in fact, the promise of the founders of modern science in the 17th century. It is less commonly understood home oral social and behavioral sciences have also produced technologies and engineering that dominate our everyday lives.

These include polling, marketing, management, insurance, and public health programs. Eighty-one percent (420) of the respondents answered the home oral and did so easily. All of the rest had good things to say.

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Comments:

14.06.2019 in 07:26 seavonho1989:
Браво, мне кажется это отличная идея

15.06.2019 in 00:00 Платон:
По-моему это только начало. Предлагаю Вам попробовать поискать в google.com

17.06.2019 in 10:44 Рогнеда:
Я извиняюсь, но, по-моему, Вы не правы. Пишите мне в PM.