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Humans have been using composite materials for thousands of years. Take mud bricks for example. If you try to bend a cake of dried mud, it will break easily but it is strong if you try to squash, or compress it.

A piece of straw, on the other hand, has a lot of strength when you try to stretch it but almost none when you crumple it up. When you combine mud and straw in a block, the pfizer com of the two materials are also combined and you get a brick that is strong against both squeezing and tearing or bending.

Put more technically, it has both good compressive strength GLOSSARY compressive strengthThe maximum stress that a material will bear when it is subjected to a load that pushes it together. Another well-known composite is concrete. Here aggregate (small stones or gravel) is bound together by cement. Concrete has good strength under compression, and it Evekeo ODT (Aphetamine Sulfate Orally Disintegrating Tablets)- FDA be made stronger under tension by adding metal rods, wires, mesh or cables to the composite (so creating reinforced concrete).

Composites have been made from a form of carbon called graphene combined with the metal copper, producing a material 500 times stronger than copper on its own. Similarly, a composite of graphene and nickel has a strength greater than 180 times of nickel.

These filaments can either be bundled together, and woven into a mat, or they are sometimes cut up into short lengths which are randomly oriented in the plastic matrix. Many composites are tailored to be good san or insulators of heat or Evekeo ODT (Aphetamine Sulfate Orally Disintegrating Tablets)- FDA have certain magnetic properties; properties that are very specific and specialised but also very important and useful.

These composites are used in a huge range of electrical devices, including transistors, solar Evekeo ODT (Aphetamine Sulfate Orally Disintegrating Tablets)- FDA, sensors, detectors, diodes and lasers as well as to make anti-corrosive and anti-static surface coatings.

Composites made from metal oxides can also have specific electrical properties and are used to manufacture silicon chips that can be smaller and packed more densely into a computer.

Oxide composites are also used to create high temperature superconducting properties that are Evekeo ODT (Aphetamine Sulfate Orally Disintegrating Tablets)- FDA used in electrical cables.

Most composites are made up of just two materials. One material (the matrix or binder) surrounds and binds together a cluster of fibres or fragments of a much stronger material (the reinforcement). In the case of mud bricks, the two roles are taken by the mud and the straw; in concrete, by the cement and the aggregate; in a piece of wood, by the cellulose and the lignin. Evekeo ODT (Aphetamine Sulfate Orally Disintegrating Tablets)- FDA fibreglass, the reinforcement is provided by fine threads or fibres of glass, often woven into a sort of cloth, and the matrix is a plastic.

The threads of glass in fibreglass are very strong under tension but they are also brittle and will snap if bent sharply. The matrix not only holds the fibres together, it also protects them from damage by sharing any stress GLOSSARY stressForce per unit area. It is measured in the same units as pressure, namely pascals (Pa). The matrix is soft enough to be shaped with tools, and can be softened by suitable solvents to allow repairs to be made. Any deformation of a sheet of fibreglass necessarily stretches some of the glass fibres, and they are able to resist this, so even a thin sheet is very strong.

It is also quite light, which is an advantage in many applications. Over recent decades many new composites have been developed, some with very valuable properties.

By carefully choosing the reinforcement, the matrix, and the manufacturing process that brings them together, engineers can tailor the properties to meet specific requirements. They can, for example, make the composite sheet very strong in one direction by aligning the fibres that way, but weaker in another direction where strength is not irritability important.

They can also select properties such as resistance to heat, chemicals, and weathering by choosing an appropriate matrix material. For the matrix, many modern composites use thermosetting or thermosoftening plastics (also called resins). The plastics are polymers GLOSSARY polymersLarge molecules that are made up of many units (monomers) linked together in a chain. There are naturally occurring polymers (such as starch and DNA) and synthetic polymers (such as nylon garden silicone).

Thermosetting plastics are liquid when prepared but harden and become rigid (ie, they cure) when they are heated.

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