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Non-financial factors may also threaten Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA research. These ties may lead to the research being used to promote the views and interests of certain parties (representative party threat), or turpentine may lead to there not being sufficient distance between the researcher and the participants (threat to confidentiality), or it may lead to independence being threatened because the participants are in a position where they can influence the researcher (threat of pressure).

Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA some situations, the role of independent research Targretin Gel (Bexarotene Gel)- Multum come into conflict with other roles the researcher may have, for example as adviser or consultant.

In some situations, the conflict between roles will be so strong that the Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA should not be combined. Both researchers and commissioners have a duty to make it publicly known who is funding the research. It must be clear who is funding the research. Transparency concerning funding makes it easier for researchers to protect themselves against undue pressure and thus ensure the freedom and independence of the research.

Moreover, commissioners have a reasonable claim to have their funding of research publicly known. When researchers are going to publish and use results, they have an independent responsibility to be open and transparent about all ties (commissioners and funding etc. Both researchers and commissioners have a responsibility to prevent medicines names and uses results from being presented in a misleading manner.

It is unethical to delimit the subject of the research with a view to producing particularly desirable results, or to present research results in an intentionally skewed manner. Commissioners may Loncastuximab Tesirine-lpyl for Injection (Zynlonta)- Multum Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA research results in such a way that the findings that are made public give a distorted picture of one or more circumstances.

Researchers must be protected against undue pressure from the commissioner to draw particular conclusions, and in patient fruit situations should invoke their right to withdraw from assignments. Commissioners must accept that researchers have a right to discuss their mandates as part of research reporting: for example, to point out that perspectives, interpretations or considerations of manifest professional or practical relevance have been omitted from the mandate.

The requirements regarding source material and valid reasoning are especially important when research may have consequences for the reputation or integrity of individuals or groups, or when it may affect political decisions.

In such cases, it is particularly important for researchers to discuss alternative l368 of their findings, or to point out scientific uncertainty. If the results are used in a selective or tendentious manner by a commissioner, researchers has an obligation to point this out, and to demand that the misleading presentation be corrected. Knowledge is a collective good, and as a general rule, all results should be published.

This is also important to enable the results to be critically examined or re-used. Generally, researchers have a right and duty to publish complete descriptions and results of research projects. This may be important both for preventing research results Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA being presented selectively or in Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA skewed manner, and for giving others the opportunity to test the results.

However, private companies Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA government agencies may have a legitimate desire to protect themselves and their interests. Both negotiating strategies and Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA interests of national security may dictate that publication should be postponed or, in special cases, that the results should not be published.

With exceptions for such situations and privacy considerations, commissioners and researchers should endeavour to ensure that the public has access to results. Any restrictions on the right to publish must be stipulated by contract at the start of the project. Researchers and research institutions are obliged to disseminate scientific knowledge Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA a broader audience outside the Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA community.

Dissemination of research involves communicating scientific results, methods and values from specialised research fields to people outside the disciplines.

Dissemination may be aimed at researchers in other disciplines, or at a broader audience. It may Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA a matter of disseminating established insights into the discipline, or results from more recent research.

The relationship between research Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA reporting is especially close Fiasp (Insulin Aspart Injection for Subcutaneous or Intravenous Use)- Multum the humanities and social sciences, where a scholarly publication often also is a form of dissemination.

In some cases there is not even Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA clear line between research and dissemination, because the knowledge is mediated as part of a public debate which in turn influences the research questions and answers.

One of the main reasons for dissemination of research is to satisfy the intellectual curiosity of the general public. Dissemination should contribute to maintaining and developing cultural traditions, to informing public opinion and to the dissemination of knowledge of relevance to society. Society has invested large sums in research, and therefore has a right to share the results. Research institutions must create conditions for extensive and broad dissemination of research characterised by high quality and relevance.

Universities and university colleges have a special Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA to disseminate knowledge, results and scientific norms and values, both in their teaching of students and Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA relation to public administration, cultural life and business and industry.

Institutions should also encourage dissemination in different arenas and through new kinds of learning, knowledge sharing and discourse, whether it be Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA the media, lecture series, conferences for non-academics or through public hearings.

Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA and university colleges also have a responsibility to maintain and further develop Norwegian as an academic language. Good dissemination Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA for interaction and cooperation between research institutions and other institutions such as the mass media, schools, art institutions, communities with various beliefs and voluntary associations.

Dissemination may take place with varying participation by researchers Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA others (such as journalists and teachers), and may be written, verbal or based on other approaches (such as exhibitions and electronic media).

All those who take Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA in such dissemination are subject to the same norms of research ethics. An important Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA of dissemination Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA research in a modern society emerges from the interaction between specialists in various academic disciplines and the public discourse.

Many of the major challenges Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA society related, for example, to ecology, globalisation and cg31 rights, call for interdisciplinary cooperation and the integration of academic knowledge from a number of fields.

There is therefore a strong need to Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA and communicate knowledge both across different disciplines and to a broader public. The development of multi-disciplinary fora at research institutions provides a good basis both for discourse among Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA and for dissemination to the broader public. Interdisciplinary discourse can define the basic demands made of a culture of academic discourse.

Researchers must express themselves clearly enough for colleagues from other fields and other participants in the discourse to take a reasoned position on their assertions. As in the case of internal academic discussions, renderings of the contributions of others must not be tendentious and persons with other opinions must not have unreasonable views falsely attributed to them.

Dissemination should be clear and plainly express both academic uncertainty and the limitations of individual disciplines. Researchers should express Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA the limitations from the perspective of their own discipline and expertise in the field in question, which may make it easier for readers and the general public to determine whether other disciplinary perspectives could lead to Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA interpretations.

Such interdisciplinary and inter-institutional discussions can serve as a sort of extended peer review. Researchers should contribute scientific arguments to the public debate. Researchers should Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA themselves fairly and clearly in order to avoid tendentious interpretations Neulasta (Pegfilgrastim)- FDA research results. When researchers take part in public debate, they are using Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA expertise as a basis for contributions to the formation of public opinion.

They may contribute information in an area that is being debated, they Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA take a reasoned position on controversial topics, or they may seek to introduce new topics onto the public agenda. Researchers have Ethambutol (Myambutol)- FDA responsibility to express themselves clearly and precisely, so that their research cannot be interpreted tendentiously and misused in political, cultural, social and economic contexts.

Researchers should also engage in discussions about reasonable interpretations and justifiable use of research results. Other organisations and institutions, such as public relations departments, the mass media, political parties, interest organisations, enterprises and administrative bodies also have a responsibility to conduct themselves reasonably and acceptably in this context.

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Comments:

08.08.2019 in 12:21 Зоя:
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10.08.2019 in 06:50 Валерьян:
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