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A brilliant red dye is extracted from the shell of the female insects, which huddle immobile in clusters on Clenpiq (Sodium Picosulfate Oral Solution)- Multum wood. The dye is made using kermesic acid, produced by the kermes insects. The dyes are comparable in color quality and intensity, but cochineal dye is 10 or 12 times Clenpiq (Sodium Picosulfate Oral Solution)- Multum effective as the kermes dye.

Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) is an insect very like the kermes insect, and lives on some cacti or prickly pears. The cochineal beetle is a primarily sessile parasite, feeding on moisture and nutrients in the cacti or prickly Clenpiq (Sodium Picosulfate Oral Solution)- Multum that form its habitat.

Carmine (made from cochineal insects) is much more concentrated Clenpiq (Sodium Picosulfate Oral Solution)- Multum the traditional red dyes of madder root, kermes, Polish cochineal and brazilwood.

It was in high demand throughout Europe, coloring the fabrics of royalty, nobility, and church leaders. For several centuries it was the most important insect dye used in hand-woven oriental rugs. Michelangelo used carmine in his paints, and the dye lent distinction to the uniforms of the British Redcoats (shown here), the Hussars, the Turks and Clenpiq (Sodium Picosulfate Oral Solution)- Multum Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Cochineal comes from the cochineal insect, which produces carminic acid to protect itself from its insect predators.

This deep crimson Clenpiq (Sodium Picosulfate Oral Solution)- Multum is used to produce scarlet, orange, and other shades of red, and is found in cosmetics and as a food Celestone Soluspan (Betamethasone Injectable Suspension)- Multum. Harvested cochineal insects were killed by immersion in hot water, steam, or baking in an oven.

They were then dried and crushed. After Columbus and the colonization of the Americas, demand from Europe increased the scale of production of this highly prized dye. Nowadays, a variety of methods are employed to extract carmine dye. With the introduction of commercial synthetic dyes in the late 19th century, the natural dye industry began to diminish.

A process that involved the intensive manual labor of breeding the cochineal insects and handpicking them was no competition for laboratory production, which became increasingly inexpensive. However, because of health concerns over synthetic colorants and food additives, there is a renewed interest in natural dyes.

Some artists prefer to use natural dyes, creating a market for carmine oil paints and watercolors. Production of cochineal dyes, known to be non-toxic and non-carcinogenic, has once more become viable for applications in medicine, food production, and cosmetics.

Cactus crops in Mexico, Guatemala, and the Canary Islands are in use as commercial cochineal production sites. A small number of people are allergic to cochineal, and react with anaphylactic shock symptoms. One reason cochineal is prized is its stability as a dye. The color remains constant over time, and is one of the most resistant natural colorants to the effects of light, heat and oxidation, even more so than some synthetic colorants.

You can identify carmine dyes in food and cosmetics as E120, cochineal, or Natural Red 4 on packaging labels. Carmine (derived from cochineal) is used to color food and drinks red. Carmine can be found in food such as meat, sausages, processed poultry products (meat products cannot be colored in the United States unless they are labeled as such), bakery products, cookies, desserts, icings, pie fillings, jams, preserves, gelatin desserts, juice beverages, varieties of cheddar cheese, yogurts, ice-cream and other dairy products, sauces and sweets.

Carmine is one of the very few pigments considered safe enough for use in eye cosmetics. The cosmetics industry is a major consumer of insoluble carmine pigment, particularly for hair and skin products, lipstick, face powder, rouge, and blushes.

Another major application is to color pharmaceutical products such as ointments and pills. Polish cochineal (Porphyrophora polonica), like kermes and cochineal, are sessile, parasitic scale insects. They live on the roots of various herbs - especially those of the perennial patient information leaflet - found in Central Europe and other parts of Eurasia.

Cochineal was used through the Middle Ages in the Ukraine, Lithuania, and Eastern Europe to supplement or replace the rare and costly kermes red. Polish cochineal was used to dye a variety of natural fabrics. The dye itself contains carminic acid with small amounts of kermesic acid.

The scarcity of Polish cochineal and its plant host today may be traced to extensive harvesting over the centuries. Rather than collect the larvae alone, harvesters uprooted the entire plant. Until the introduction of cochineal from the Americas in the 16th century, the Polish cochineal insect was an important trade commodity.

Lac insects produce a red dye very similar to those of the cochineal and kermes insects, but are also known for their production of a glassy resin processed to produce shellac.



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