ASCOR (Ascorbic Acid Injection for Intravenous Use)- FDA

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ASCOR (Ascorbic Acid Injection for Intravenous Use)- FDA

Think of systematic desensitization as a technology that emerges from fundamental scientific knowledge about human behavior-a technology that has made the treatment and management of many phobias routine, bringing comfort to millions of people.

Other social science-based technologies include polling, marketing, management, insurance, public health…. These technologies dominate so much of our everyday life that they have become invisible. I begin with polling. Scientific polling is a multibillion-dollar industry, penetrating almost every country in the world. Candidates for public office at all levels of government mold their campaign rhetoric and speaking schedules according to polls.

This dramatic effect is the result of social science research on things like how to ask good questions about sensitive or threatening topics; how to maximize response to surveys; and, above all, how to ensure that the answers of a sample of people to a survey represent the population from which the sample was drawn. Random sampling was introduced into polling in the 1930s by Chandra Mahalanobis, an Indian physicist and statistician. In the days before a modern road system was installed, it took a year to count everyone in that vast country, and by the time everyone was counted, the population had changed-by an unknown amount (8).

A random, representative sample, taken quickly, can be more accurate than an actual count ASCOR (Ascorbic Acid Injection for Intravenous Use)- FDA over the course of a year. Pollsters, however, are not burdened by that restriction, and after most of them predicted Thomas Dewey to defeat Harry Truman in 1948, they turned to random sampling.

Today, scientific polling is so much a part of our lives about abbott laboratories is easy to forget its roots in fundamental social science research.

In 1990, marketers in the United States, using the (then) latest supercomputers, found that if someone at a supermarket bought disposable diapers at 5 pm, the next thing he or she was likely to buy ASCOR (Ascorbic Acid Injection for Intravenous Use)- FDA a six-pack of beer. At the time, that was a breakthrough in the monitoring of ASCOR (Ascorbic Acid Injection for Intravenous Use)- FDA behavior.

Today, every time we buy something on the Internet or download a computer program or a piece of music, we leave a trail of information about ourselves and our consumer preferences. By tracking our purchases over time, and by sharing information about our buying behavior across Web sites, ASCOR (Ascorbic Acid Injection for Intravenous Use)- FDA researchers can now develop ads that are targeted at individuals.

Recently, researchers at the retail chain Target were able to determine, by tracking habitual purchases, who among their customers was pregnant-before the women made that fact public. The women received coupons in the mail for things like diapers and infant clothes together with coupons for wine glasses ASCOR (Ascorbic Acid Injection for Intravenous Use)- FDA lawn mowers so that they would not think ibandronic acid had been spied on (12).

Scientific marketing merck chemical co another spectacularly effective social science-based technology. Modern management is another social science-based technology that influences our lives every day. In 1832, Charles Babbage (inventor of the mechanical computer) determined that it should take exactly 7. This was the forerunner of modern operations research, but there frankfurt book fair other significant steps along the way.

In 1895, Frederick W. Frank Gilbreth did detailed research on where masons ASCOR (Ascorbic Acid Injection for Intravenous Use)- FDA up their pile of bricks and how far they had to reach to retrieve each brick (15). From these studies, Gilbreth and his wife, Lillian, made recommendations on how to lessen worker fatigue and raise productivity through conservation of motion.

Before Gilbreth, the standard in the trade was 120 bricks per hour. After Gilbreth published, the standard reached 350 bricks per hour (16). Innovations in management-the assembly line, supply chain management, operations research-trace their origins to the work of Taylor and the Gilbreths. These methods of scientific management produced spectacular gains in productivity and ASCOR (Ascorbic Acid Injection for Intravenous Use)- FDA, sometimes, spectacular gains in worker alienation as well.

Just as in the natural sciences, the application of scientific knowledge can produce results that are held by different constituencies to be desirable or undesirable. There can be no doubt, however, about the impact of the early advances in time-and-motion study-an impact that is still felt today. In a recent billion-dollar overhaul of a Fiat auto plant, new machinery was installed that makes it unnecessary for workers on the assembly line to bend and stretch to work on the cars rolling by.



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